An avatar is a two- or three-dimensional icon that represents a computer user or a gamer. An avatar can be a cartoonish graphic, a photograph, a screen name, or a fully-developed character.
A blog, from the term “weblog, ” is a type of website usually updated by an individual or a group of bloggers. Some blogs provide news or opinions on a specific subject, while others are more like online journals. Most blogs allow readers to leave comments on blog posts.
Flaming is the act of saying mean things online, usually in ALL CAPS, and often in a public forum with the intention to humiliate. Flame wars can occur easily online, as it can be difficult to figure out people’s intentions or emotions online.
A mash-up is a remix or blend of multiple songs, videos, or other media content into one product. Fan fiction writing is one form of a mash-up, as writers take characters from a well-known video game, movie, or book, and rewrite their actions or relationships.
Phishing is the illegal act of sending emails or messages that appear to come from authentic sources, but really come from spammers. Phishers often try to get people to send them their personal information, everything from account numbers to passwords.
A podcast is a downloadable video or audio file. Podcasts can be verbal, based on a certain topic, or can include music, video, and commentary. Most podcasts are updated regularly through the addition of new episodes.
An SMS, or text message, is a short message of fewer than 160 characters sent from a cell phone. An MMS is a text message that contains an attached multimedia file, such as a picture or song.
Creative work - Any idea or artistic creation that is recorded in some form, whether it’s hard copy
Copyright - A law that protects your control over the creative work you make so that people must get
your permission before they copy, share, or perform your work.
Creative commons- A kind of copyright that makes it easier for people to copy, share, and build
on your creative work, as long as they give you credit for it.
License - A clear way to define the copyright of your creative work so people know how
it can be used.
Piracy - Stealing copyrighted work by downloading or copying it in order to keep, sell, or give it away
without permission and without paying.
Plagiarism - Copying, “lifting,” or making slight changes to some or all of someone else’s work and
saying you created it.
Public Domain -Creative work that’s not copyrighted and therefore free for you to use however you
Fair use - The ability to use a small amount of copyrighted work without permission, but only in
certain ways and in specific situations (schoolwork and education, news reporting, criticizing or
commenting on something, and comedy/parody).
Creator’s Rights Vocabulary Review
Use above vocabulary to fill in the blanks.
1. Amy decided to__________________________________ her paper for class by copying and pasting from Wikipedia and saying she wrote it.
2. Because Zoe used a small amount of a movie in a remix video she made that pokes fun at the main character, she could say it’s___________ .
3. Robbie found a photo in the_______________________________________ that’s no longer copyrighted, so he could use it however he wants.
4. Angela has a Flickr page with all of her photos. She created a copyright ____________________ that is listed on her page which defines how she wants others to use her photos.
5. Alex had an idea for a poem in his head for the longest time, but once he finally wrote it down it instantly had a ____________________________.
6. Eric uses a program where he “rips” movies and “burns” them to DVDs, which he then sells to friends. What Eric is doing is called ____________.
7. When Dwayne used ______________ _______________, which is a kind of copyright that makes it easy for others to copy and share his video.
8. Books, movies, music, websites, games, and pieces of art are all examples of ______________ __________________.
Digital Citizenship Review Packet
1. Which of the following activities involve using a type of digital media? (You may circle more than one answer.)
a) Instant messaging
b) Playing baseball
c) Sending a text message to a friend
d) Playing a card game
e) Sending a postcard to a friend
2. People use the term “24/7” to describe digital media because:
a) This type of media is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
b) You need a password with 24 letters and 7 numbers to use digital media.
c) There are 24 different kinds of digital media.
3. When digital media is described as being interactive, this means:
a) People can make friends on the Internet
b) Communication can be “two-way”
c) Both a and b
Read this scenario about Kevin and José and answer the questions below.
Kevin sends his friend José a short video he made at home, a reenactment of a famous fantasy movie
scene. José, laughing at how Kevin looks, shows it to some other boys at school. The boys laugh at
Kevin too, and then decide to post it on a video-sharing website. Millions of people then view Kevin’s
video. Nasty comments are posted. Every day, Kevin goes online to check the site and sees more
comments like “idiot” and “fat nerd.” Every day, he goes to school and hears similar cruel comments
from his classmates.
Who are the bystanders?
What would you do if you were a bystander?
What would you say to José if you wanted him to stop?
What would you say to Kevin or do for him to show your support for him?
Cyberbullying Review Questions
1. An upstander is someone who:
a) Takes action and stands up for someone who is being cyberbullied
b) Goes along with what a cyberbully is doing because of peer pressure
c) Ignores what a cyberbully is doing
2. Lali tells Gloria that she keeps receiving mean messages on her cell phone. “That
must make you feel awful,” Gloria says. “Do you want to talk about it?” True or false:
Gloria is showing Lali empathy.
3. Alina notices that a classmate keeps posting rude comments about her friend Mike
on a blog. What could Alina do to become an upstander?
a) Show Mike support
b) Ask her classmate to delete the posts
c) Both a and b
Creator’s Rights Review Questions
The word Plagiarize means:
b) Copying or slightly changing someone else’s work and then giving that person credit
c) Downloading material illegally from the Internet
- A _________________________________ is a law that protects your control over your creative work.
- Ellen wants to keep some control over the photographs she’s taken, but she also wants to make it easier for people to share and use them. Ellen should use _____________________. __________________________
b) public domain
c) Collective Copies
Safe Online Talk
COMMUNICATING SAFELY ONLINE
The term “online predator” often conjures up the image of a creepy older man at a computer screen waiting to lure an unsuspecting child. The media reinforces this depiction, which is problematic because it does not fit with the kinds of risky relationships that are more common for teens. In reality, when online sexual solicitation does occur, it’s more likely to be between two teens, or between a teen and a young adult.
The following background information serves to clear up these misconceptions, providing information for teachers about the myths and realities of online sexual solicitation, as well as guidance on how to approach this sensitive topic.
Thinking Beyond “Online Predators”
Many adults fear that teens use the Internet to connect with strangers. In reality, most teens use the Internet to keep in touch with people they already know offline, or to explore topics that interest them. Studies show that it is most often teens who are psychologically or socially vulnerable that tend to take more risks online (Subrahmanyam and Šmahel, 2011; Ybarra et al., 2007). These at-risk teens might seek reassurance, friendship, or acceptance through relationships that they develop online. Given the disconnect between the “online predator” myth and the more realistic types of solicitation outlined above, it is important to strike the right tone when discussing the issue with teens.
We recommend that adults avoid fear-based messages with teens, as research indicates that teens are less responsive to this approach (Lanning, 2010). Teens are not likely to buy into the idea that they should avoid all contact with anyone they do not know online. After all, it is nearly impossible to connect with others online without talking to some people who are strangers. Rather than telling teens to never talk with strangers,
it is more effective to have conversations about why certain online relationships are risky, and about how to
The Truth About Risky Online Relationships
The information below is meant to clear up misconceptions about the common risks that kids face when they
meet people online. It is based on research from the Crimes Against Children Research Center, the Internet
Safety Technical Task Force, and Internet Solutions for Kids, Inc.
1. Teens, not children, are most likely to receive online sexual solicitations.
Online solicitors rarely target younger kids. This happens more frequently to younger teens (ages 14 to 17).
People who solicit online are often upfront about their intentions. They may ask teens to talk about sex, to give out personal sexual information, to send sexy photos online, or to meet offline for a possible sexual encounter.
2. A teen is more likely to be solicited online by another teen or a young adult.
Contrary to popular belief, teens are more likely to be solicited online by similarly aged peers. It is true, however, that a very high majority of sexual solicitations online come from boys or men. Guiding teens to think more generally about avoiding risky online relationships, rather than telling them to fear predators, prepares them for the wider breadth of situations they may have to deal with online— not only the extreme cases.
3. The “predator-prey” label gives the wrong impression.
There is a range of behaviors that are not made clear by the predator-prey label. The behaviors can range from “not as risky” to “very risky,” as reflected in the chart below:
- ‡Receive inappropriate spam through email and immediately send it to their junk mail
- ‡Accept a friend request online from a stranger and receive a sexually explicit online message thereafter, or joke around on a virtual world site and flirt with other avatars
- ‡Seek companionship or friendship on an online chat room, and develop an ongoing, risky relationship with a stranger
aware of their solicitor’s true age and intentions. For the small percentage of teens who find themselves in this kind of situation, simply warning them against “unwanted contact” is not an effective strategy because they have likely grown to be comfortable with, and perhaps even dependent upon, their solicitor. Instead, we need to help teens understand why it is risky to flirt with people they meet online, how to recognize warning signs, and more broadly, why romantic relationships between teens and adults are unhealthy.
Read the following situations and circle the correct answer the questions below. Keep in mind the levels of risky online behavior (refer to chart above).
1. Marcus, a seventh grader, is chatting with Joel, a friend he knows only through an online virtual world. Joel asks Marcus if he wants to meet in person sometime. Is it okay for Marcus to agree to meet Joel in person by himself?
2. Alice is friends with someone who she only knows through an online chat room. Alice knows that when she makes an online-only friend, she needs to be careful. Alice’s online friend asks her three questions. Which one should she not answer?
a) What bands do you like most?
b) Will you promise to keep our friendship secret?
c) Isn’t it cool that we like the same TV shows?
3. True or false: Flirting with somebody you meet online is safe, as long as you are in control of the situation.
Creator’s Responsibilities Review Questions
Ben downloads songs from a website that doesn't make you pay for songs that normally cost money. What Ben is doing is called:
Which of the following is an example of plagiarism?
a) Filming your friends acting out a play you wrote, and sharing the video online
b) Writing an email
c) Copying parts of an essay you found online into your book report for school
Layla designed t-shirts online for her debate team. The design used a copyrighted image. Her friends liked the design so much that she decided to sell them to the public online. Selling the t-shirts online was:
a) Legal because Layla designed the T-shirt herself
b) Illegal because Layla made a profit from someone else’s copyrighted work
c) Illegal because Layla’s friends already have the T-shirts